Sapphire Crystal

Single crystal sapphire possesses a unique combination of excellent optical, physical and chemical properties. The hardest of the oxide crystals, sapphire retains its high strength at high temperatures, has good thermal properties and excellent transparency. 
   It is chemically resistant to common acids and alkali at temperatures up to 1000 °C as well as to HF below 300 °C. These properties encourage its wide use in hostile environments where optical transmission in the range from the visible to the near infrared is required. 

   Maximum available size for windows, lenses and blanks: 100 mm Dia x 10 mm Thk and 100 mm Square x 10 mm Thk. Sapphire is also available in form of round rod (2-20 mm Dia, 150-300 mm long), rectangular and square rod and ribbon (10-80 mm wide, 1-4 mm thick, 150-300 mm long), tubing (3-30 mm Dia, 1-8 mm wall thickness, 150-300 mm long) and other custom cross-section configurations.


                      

BASE PROPERTIES
PARAMETER
VALUE
OPTICAL
 
Transmission Range
0.17 to 5.5 microns
Refractive Index
1.75449 (o) 1.74663 (e) at 1.06 microns
Reflection Loss
14% at 1.06 microns (2 surfaces)
Absorption Coefficient
0.3 x 10-3e cm-1 at 2.4μm
Restrahlen Peak
13.5μm
dN/dT
13.7 x 10-6e at 5.4μm
dN/dμ = 0
1.5μm
PHYSICAL

Density
3.97 g/cm3
Melting Point
2040°C
Thermal Conductivity
27.21 W/(m*K) at 300K
Thermal Expansion
5.6 (paral) & 5.0 (perp) x 10-6e/K *
Hardness
Knoop 2000 with 2000g indenter
Specific Heat Capacity
419 J/(kg K)
Dielectric Constant
11.5 (paral) 9.4 (perp) at 1MHz
Young's Modulus (E)
335 GPa
Shear Modulus (G)
148.1 GPa
Bulk Modulus (K)
240 GPa
Elastic Coefficients
C11=496 C12=164 C13=115 C33=498 C44=148
Apparent Elastic Limit
275 MPa (40,000 psi)
Poisson Ratio
0.25
CHEMICAL

Solubility
98x10-6 g/100g water
Molecular Weight
101.96
Class/Structure
Trigonal (hex), R3c
REFRACTIVE INDEX            
Wavelength, μm
0.308
0.325
0.337
0.351
0.355
0.442
Refractive Index (ne)
1.811
1.805
1.801
1.797
1.796
1.780
Refractive Index (no)
1.802
1.796
1.792
1.788
1.787
1.772
Wavelength, μm
0.458
0.488
0.55
0.532
0.590
0.633
Refractive Index (ne)
1.778
1.775
1.773
1.772
1.768
1.766
Refractive Index (no)
1.770
1.767
1.765
1.764
1.760
1.758
Wavelength, μm
0.670
0.694
0.775
0.780
0.800
0.820
Refractive Index (ne)
1.764
1.763
1.761
1.761
1.760
1.760
Refractive Index (no)
1.756
1.755
1.753
1.753
1.752
1.7528
Wavelength, μm
0.980
1.064
1.320
1.550
2.010
2.249
Refractive Index (ne)
1.756
1.754
1.750
1.746
1.737
1.732
Refractive Index (no)
1.748
1.747
1.742
1.738
1.729
1.724
Wavelength, μm
2.703
2.942
3.333
3.704
4.000
4.348
Refractive Index (ne)
1.719
1.712
1.701
1.687
1.674
1.658
Refractive Index (no)
1.711
1.704
1.693
1.699
1.666
1.65
Wavelength, μm
4.762
5.000
5.263
Refractive Index (ne)
1.636
1.623
1.607
Refractive Index (no)
1.628
1.615
1.599

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